VISITAS

quarta-feira, 23 de abril de 2014

Série livros sobre a Amazônia - Alfred Russel Wallace - Viagem pelo Rio Amazonas e Negro

Alfred Russel Wallace, nasceu no  País de Gales, 8 de janeiro de 1823  e faleceu em Dorset, Inglaterra, 7 de novembro de 1913. Foi  um naturalista  e um dos criadores da teoria evolucionista em parceria com Darwin.  Em 1848 Wallace e Henry Bates partiram para o Brasil à bordo do Mischief. Sua intenção era coletar insetos e outros espécimes animais na  e vendê-los a colecionadores na Inglaterra, a venda de coleções era uma fonte de renda para custear as expedições. Também esperavam juntar evidências da transmutação das espécies. Wallace e Bates passaram a maior parte de seu primeiro ano coletando espécimes próximo a Belém, quando exploraram o interior separadamente, encontrando-se por ocasião para discutir seus achados. Em 1849, tiveram a breve companhia de um outro jovem explorador, o botânico Richard Spruce, junto com o irmão mais novo de Wallace, Herbert.  Wallace continuou cartografando o Rio Negro por quatro anos, coletando espécimes e tomando notas acerca dos povos e línguas que encontrou bem como a geografia, flora e fauna. Em 12 de julho de 1852, Wallace embarcou rumo ao Reino Unido no navio  Helen. Após vinte e oito dias ao mar, o bálsamo na carga do navio pegou fogo e a tripulação foi forçada a abandona-lo. A coleção inteira que Wallace levava foi perdida. Pode apenas salvar parte de seu diário e uns poucos esboços. Porém uma pequena parte de seu material ficou retida no porto de Manaus, esta se salvou. Wallace e sua tripulação passaram dez dias num barco aberto antes de serem resgatados. Durante esse período, apesar de ter perdido quase todas as suas anotações de sua expedição à América do Sul, ele escreveu seis ensaios (os quais incluíram On the Monkeys of the Amazon) e dois livros: Palm Trees of the Amazon and Their Uses e Travels on the Amazon..
Fonte: Wikipedia



Livros de Wallace sobre o Amazonas

Travels on the Amazon




A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro. Alfred Russel Wallace.   Editora: Ward, Lock, Bowden and Co., 1892.  364 p.


 

A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro. Alfred Russel Wallace.  1 ed. Editora: Ward, Lock, Bowden and Co., 1892.  364 p.








EDIÇÕES NO BRASIL DO LIVRO DE ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
  



Alfred Russel Wallace. Viagens pelos rios Amazonas e Negro. 1 ed. Ed. Itatiaia - Edusp. Belo Horizonte. 317 p. 1979.

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Peixes do Rio Negro - Fishes of the Rio Negro

Alfred Russel Wallace. Peixes do Rio Negro - Fishes of the Rio Negro. Edusp. 2002. 517 p




Organização: Mônica de Toledo - Piza Ragazzo. Nos últimos anos tem havido um interesse cada vez maior na contribuição do naturalista inglês Alfred Russel Wallace para a formulação da teoria da evolução das espécies de Charles Darwin. Esta publicação bilíngue (português-inglês) apresenta pela primeira vez a reprodução completa das 212 ilustrações de peixes feitas por Wallace durante sua expedição ao Rio Negro, na Amazônia, entre 1850 e 1852, e doados por ele ao Museu Britânico. O livro traz dados diversos referentes a cada um dos peixes, acompanhados de seus nomes populares e de sua classificação, além das descrições realizadas pelo próprio Wallace.

quinta-feira, 17 de abril de 2014

Luto - Mourning - Gabriel Garcia Marquez



Gabriel José García Márquez
(Aracataca, 6 de março de 1927Cidade do México, 17 de abril de 2014)








sábado, 5 de abril de 2014

Série livros sobre Amazônia - VIAGEM AO BRASIL (1865-1866) - Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz


Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz nasceu em Môtier,  Suiça em 18 de Maio de 1807 e faleceu em Cambridge, 14 de Dezembro de 1873. O início da sua educação começou em casa, seguido de quatro anos numa escola secundária em Bienne, completou os  seus estudos elementares na academia de Lausanne. Seleccionando a medicina como a sua profissão, estudou nas universidades de Zurique, Heidelberg e Munique. Em seguida aumentou o seu conhecimento nos processos biológicos, especialmente na Botânica. Em 1829, doutorou-se em Erlangen e em 1830 doutorou-se em medicina em Munique.Mudou-se para Paris e ficou sobre a tutela de Alexander von Humboldt e de Georges Cuvier, que o lançaram nas suas carreiras da Geologia e do Zoologia respectivamente. Até esta altura não prestou nenhuma atenção especial ao estudo da Ictiologia, a qual se transformou na grande ocupação de sua vida, ou pelo menos na área em que atualmente é mais recordado. Em 1819-1820, Johann Baptist von Spix e Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius estiveram envolvidos numa expedição no Brasil, e no seu regresso a Europa, entre outras coleções biológicas, trouxeram um importante conjunto de peixes de água doce do Brasil, especialmente do rio Amazonas.

Entre 1865 e julho de 1866 vem ao Brasil, como chefe da expedição Tayer, saindo de Nova Iorque, passando pelo Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, nordeste do Brasil e terminando na Amazônia. Como resultados de sua viagem publicou o livro Journey to Brazil em 1868. Nesse sentido, sua viagem ao Brasil, realizada , tornou a Amazônia uma espécie de laboratório de estudos sobre a mestiçagem brasileira e pretendeu fortalecer o campo político de parte da elite norte-americana que pregava a segregação dos negros. Ele diz, explicitamente:

"Aqueles que põem em dúvida os efeitos perniciosos da mistura de raças e são levados, por falsa filantropia, a romper todas as barreiras colocadas entre elas deveriam vir ao Brasil."

Na Amazônia, Agassiz ficou viúvo e procurou nova mulher, realizou fotos de habitantes de cunho menos artístico que, por exemplo, as fotos tiradas por Albert Frisch, pois os retratou em poses típicas da antropometria, que davam destaque à conformação das partes dos corpos e suas proporções, sem preocupação com a inserção dos indígenas em seu ambiente.  Recebeu a medalha Wollaston concedida pela Sociedade Geológica de Londres, em 1836.


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1 EDIÇÃO




Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Ticknor and Fields, 1868, Boston. 1 Ed. orig. green cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations.










 This work details a 19 month collecting expedition to Brazil, begun in the spring of 1865 for the purpose of collecting specimens for Agassiz's natural history museum at Harvard. It is one of the most famous scientific expeditions to the Amazon and, interestingly, most of it was written by Mrs. Agassiz. Kept in the form of a journal it is interesting reading, graphic in its descriptions.



2 EDIÇÃO


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Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Ticknor and Fields, 1868, Boston. 2 Ed. orig. green cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations.



3 EDIÇÃO


Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Ticknor and Fields, 1868, Boston. 3 Ed. orig. green cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations. 

4 EDIÇÃO 

Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Osgood and Company, 1870, Boston. 4 Ed. orig. green cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations.


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5 EDIÇÃO


Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Osgood and Company, 1875, Boston. 5 Ed.Green cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations.


6 EDIÇÃO


Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Ticknor and Fields, 1869, Boston. 6 Ed. Dark red/brown cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations. 


8 EDIÇÃO

Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil. Ticknor and Fields, 1869, Boston. 6 Ed. Dark red/brown cloth, xix, 540pp. With illustrations. 


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9 EDIÇÃO


Luiz Agassiz e Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Journey to Brazil.  Houghton, Osgood at the Riverside Press, Boston, 1879. Ninth edition. 8vo. xix, 540 pp. Frontispiece (tissue-guard), 7 plates of woodcuts (with tissue-guards) and other woodcuts in the text. Green cloth


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EDIÇÕES FRANCESAS



A Journey in Brazil, foi traduzida para o francês por M. Vogeli, publicada inicialmente em 1869 (Voyage au Brésil), alcançando grande popularidade. Uma edição popular, resumida, foi preparada por J. Belin-de Launay e lançada pela Librairie Hachette, de Paris, em 1872.










Voyage au Brésil. Agassiz, M. u. Mme. Librairie Hachette, Paris, 1872. Trad. Felix Vogeli. Paris, Librairie de L. Hachette. 1ª. ed.  1869. 532 p. with 54 Gravures. 5 maps.






Appletons' Agassiz Jean Louis Rudolphe signature.jpg
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SOBRE A OBRA
                           A primeira edição foi publicada no idioma inglês em 1868 em Boston. A obra foi reimpressa diversas vezes. A importância de Agassiz, segundo a obra "Brasiliana da Biblioteca Nacional", página 60, reside no fato de que ele "parece ter sido um dos que demarcaram os novos limites entre textos científicos e relatos de viagem. O texto Viagem ao Brasil (1867) foi redigido por sua esposa Elisabeth, que se encarregou dos detalhes pitorescos, das descrições de paisagens e da narrativa de suas peripécias.O naturalista aumentou o texto com notas que explicavam de forma aprofundada o que Elisabeth expusera de forma geral e acrescentou-lhe um capítulo final e um apêndice." A presente obra ilustra a viagem do Lorde Agassiz ao Brasil, com belas e interessantes gravuras, incluindo algumas ilustrações de página inteira retratando paisagens e cidade', penteados, trajes e ornamentos, cenas da vida quotidiana, mapas da Amazôni.


EDIÇÕES NO BRASIL




https://sebodomessias.com.br/loja/imagens/produtos/produtos/52/520021_652.jpg
Luiz Agassiz & Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Viagem ao Brasil (1865 - 1866). 1ed. 1938. Editora: Companhia Editora Nacional.  Tradução de Edgar S de Mendonça. Serie Brasiliana, v. 95. 654p. 






Este edição pode ser obtida no link: Viagem ao Brasil - Agassiz. 1 Ed. 1938






Luiz Agassiz & Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Viagem ao Brasil (1865 - 1866). 1ed. 1938Editora: Companhia Editora Nacional.  Tradução de Edgar S de Mendonça. Serie Brasiliana, v. 95. 654p.

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2 Edição Brasileira


VIAGEM AO BRASIL (1865-1866)
Luiz Agassiz & Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Viagem ao Brasil (1865 - 1866). 2 ed. 1975Editora: Itatiaia. 853190501x. 323 p.


3 Edição no Brasil


Luiz Agassiz & Elizabeth Cary Agassiz. Viagem ao Brasil (1865 - 1866). Tradução Edgar Süssekind de Mendonça. 3 ed. 2000. Editora:do Senado.  516 p. (Coleção O Brasil visto por estrangeiros)



Livros sobre Agazziz



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domingo, 30 de março de 2014

Serie Livros sobre Amazônia - O naturalista na Amazônia - Henry Walter Bates

Henry Walter Bates (Leicester, 8 de fevereiro de 1825Londres, 16 de fevereiro de 1892) foi um entomólogo e naturalista inglês

 



 

Famoso por sua viagem à Amazônia, junto com Alfred Russel Wallace, com o objetivo de recolher material zoológico e botânico para o Museu de História Natural de Londres.



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 Permaneceu no Brasil durante onze anos, enviando cerca de 14.712 espécies (8000 delas novas), a maior parte insetos para a Inglaterra.  Após o seu trabalho nas florestas tropicais do Brasil, propôs o mecanismo de Mimetismo batesiano, uma uma forma de mimetismo em que uma espécie evolui características morfológicas ou outras que a fazem aparentar com outra espécie considerada repugnante pelo predador, concedendo-lhe uma certa protecção contra predação. Em 1861 casou com Sarah Ann Mason e a partir de 1864 trabalhou como secretário assistente da Royal Geographical Society.  Foi acompanhado de seu sócio e amigo Alfred Russel Wallace, juntos excursionaram pelo rio Tocantins, em busca de dados sobre a origem das espécies (1848-1852),  catalogou cerca de 8000 insetos até então desconhecidos numa coletânea de 14.712 espécies da fauna da América do Sul, que muito contribuiu para o progresso dos estudos zoológicos. Na sua volta à Inglaterra (1859) apresentou à Linnean Society a monografia Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley (1861), que mereceu o aplauso de Charles Darwin, que utilizou muitos dos dados para elaborar sua teoria sobre a origem das espécies. Nomeado secretário-assistente da Royal Geographical Society (1864), foi eleito para a Royal Society (1881) e morreu em Londres de bronquite. Publicou na Inglaterra vários livros sobre a Amazônia sendo o mais conhecido The Naturalist on The River Amazons (1863), traduzido no Brasil como O naturalista no Rio Amazonas (1944) na sua primeira edição, com tradução de Candido de Mello Leitão, e posteriormente, como Um naturalista no Rio Amazonas (1979) com tradução de Regina Régis Junqueira. 




Edições do - The naturalist on the River Amazons



Bates, H.W. 1863. THE NATURALIST ON THE RIVER AMAZONS, A RECORD OF ADVENTURES, HABITS OF ANIMALS, SKETCHES OF BRAZILIAN AND INDIAN LIFE, AND ASPECTS OF NATURE UNDER THE EQUATOR, DURING ELEVEN YEARS OF TRAVEL. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY. 352 + 424 p.

















1 Edição. 1863. 2 v

Bates, H.W. 1863. THE NATURALIST ON THE RIVER AMAZONS, A RECORD OF ADVENTURES, HABITS OF ANIMALS, SKETCHES OF BRAZILIAN AND INDIAN LIFE, AND ASPECTS OF NATURE UNDER THE EQUATOR, DURING ELEVEN YEARS OF TRAVEL. LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, 2 volumes, 8vo, (vol.1) viii, [ii], 352pp., 32 pp. adverts dated January 1863; (vol.2) vi, 424 pp., folding map, 9 wood-engraved plates, illustrations


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2 Edição. 1864. 1 v.







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Bates H.W. 1864. The naturalist on the river Amazons. 2nd. London, John Murray, 1864, First one-volume edition, published the year after the first edition in two volumes., 8vo [20.5 x 13.5 cm]; xii, 466, [ii, ads] pp, frontis, numerous plates and illustrations, foldout map of the Amazons from its mouth to Peru, with two map insets, index. original green pictorial gilt cloth, gilt spine title lettering, owner's signature on endpaper, internal hinge cracked but firm, edges lightly rubbed, but a very good copy, gilt bright. Borba de Moraes p 91 for 1st edition. The rare first edition of this classic of natural history exploration was published in London 1863. This second edition omits some of the technical detail but includes the entire personal narrative and most description of the natural history. The folding map which is present was not included in later editions. Bates, who spent over 11 years in the Amazon area, formed an enormous collection of 14,000 insects, which occupied scientists for years in classifying them. He went to South America with Alfred Russell Wallace and the two journeyed together for a time. Darwin encouraged him to write the book and recommended it for publication. In Darwin's words: "Bates is only excelled by Humboldt in his description of the tropical forest". His observations contributed to the theory of evolution, hence the importance of this book. "A splendid travel book" (Knight p. 180). Welch 33. Humphreys 1447. Goodman 606: 'One of the most interesting and pleasing of all the works written by the explorers.' The Dictionary of Scientific Biography describes it as 'one of the finest scientific travel books of the 19th century'.  This truncated edition which is usually reprinted. Advice: use the 1863 or 1892 editions for professional purposes] (reissued by Cambridge University Press, 2009; ISBN 978-1-108-00163-2)

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3 Edição. 1892. 1 v.






Bates H.W. 1892. The naturalist on the river Amazons, with a memoir of the author by Edward Clodd. [this edition, published after Bates' death, is valuable for two reasons: it is the only time since 1863 that Murray published the full text, and it includes a good short biography by Clodd].   Reprint of the Unabridged 2 Edition. 240mm x 160mm (9" x 6"). 395pp. Map and Numerous illustrations, including colour plates. 





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EDIÇÃO EM ALEMÃO 
Elf Jahre am Amazonas





 Edições de Henry Bates no Brasil - - O naturalista no Rio Amazonas / Um naturalista no Rio Amazonas




BATES, Henry Walter.O naturalista do rio Amazonas. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1944. 1 ed. 2 v. (Brasiliana, 237). 2 Vlos. Série 5ª brasiliana vol 237 Tradução Candido de Mello Leitão. 376 + 398 Pags. 18, 5 cms.




1 Edição no Brasil


BATES, Henry Walter.O naturalista do rio Amazonas. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1944. 1 ed. 2 v. (Brasiliana, 237). 2 Vlos. Série 5ª brasiliana vol 237 Tradução Candido de Mello Leitão. 376 + 398 Pags. 18, 5 cms.

Este volume é disponível em:  O naturalista no rio Amazonas - Henry W. Bates

 
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2 Edição no Brasil





BATES, Henry Walter. Um naturalista do rio Amazonas. Belo Horizonte : Ed. Itatia. São Paulo: Ed. da Universidade de Sao Paulo. 1979. 2 ed. 2 v. (Reconquista do Brasil, v. 53). Tradução Regina Régis Junqueira




BATES, Henry Walter. Um naturalista do rio Amazonas. Belo Horizonte : Ed. Itatia. São Paulo: Ed. da Universidade de Sao Paulo. 1979. 2 ed. 2 v. (Reconquista do Brasil, v. 53). Tradução Regina Régis Junqueira

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História do período de estadia de Henry Bates no Brasil

Fonte:http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Bates,_Henry_Walter_%28DNB01%29

In the meantime, however, he had made the acquaintance of Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace, then English master at the collegiate school, Leicester. The works of Humboldt and Lyell, and Darwin's recently published 'Journal' (1839), proved a bond of communion between them. They were both also enthusiastic entomologists, and were alike growing dissatisfied with their restricted collecting area. The friends began to discuss schemes for going abroad to explore some unharvested region, and these at length took definite shape, mainly owing to the interest excited by a little book by William H. Edwards on 'A Voyage up the River Amazon, including a residence at Pará' (New York, 1847). This led Mr. Wallace to propose to Bates a joint expedition to the Amazons, the plan being to collect largely and dispose of duplicates in London in order to defray expenses, while gathering facts towards solving the problem of the origin of species. They embarked at Liverpool in a small trading vessel of 192 tons on 26 April 1848, and arrived off Pará on 27 May. Bates made Pará his headquarters until 6 Nov. 1851, when he started on his long voyage to the Tapajos and the Upper Amazons, which occupied a period of seven years and a half. It was from Pará that he and Mr. Wallace in August 1848 made an excursion up the river Tocantins, the third in rank among the streams which make up the Amazons system, of the grandeur and peculiarities of which he wrote a striking account. In September 1849 he started on his first voyage up the main stream in a small sailing vessel (a service of steamers was not established until 1853), and reached Santarem, which he subsequently made his headquarters for a period of three years; but on this journey he pushed on to Obydos, about fifty miles further on. Here he secured a passage in a cuberta or small vessel proceeding with merchandise up the Rio Negro. The destination of the boat was Manaos on the Barra of the Rio Negro, a spot rendered memorable by the visit of the Dutch naturalists, Spix and Martins, in 1820. Here, some thousand miles from Pará, in March 1850 Bates and Wallace parted company, 'finding it more convenient to explore separate districts and collect independently.' Wallace took the northern parts and tributaries of the Amazons, and Bates kept to the main stream, which, from the direction it seems to take at the fork of the Rio Negro, is called the Upper Amazons, or the Solimoens. After sailing three hundred and seventy miles up the Solimoens, through 'one uniform, lofty, impervious, and humid forest,' Bates arrived on May-day 1850 at Ega. Here he spent nearly twelve months before returning to Pará, and thus finished what may be considered as his preliminary survey of the vast collecting ground which will always be associated with his name. In November 1851 he again arrived at Santarem, where, after a residence of six months, he commenced arrangements for an excursion up the little-known Tapajos river, which in magnitude stands sixth among the tributaries of the Amazons. A stay was made at the small settlement of Aveyros, and from this spot an expedition was made up the Cupari, a branch river which enters the Tapajos about eight miles above it. At this time he was thrown into contact with Mundurucii Indians, and was able to acquire much valuable ethnological information. The furthest point up the Amazons system that he visited (in Sept. 1857) was St. Paulo, a few leagues north east of Tabatinga and the Peruvian frontier.
From June 1864 until February 1859 Bates made his head-quarters 1,400 miles above Pará, at Ega, a place which he made familiar by name to every European naturalist as the home of entomological discoveries of the highest interest. At Ega he found five hundred and fifty new and distinct species of butterflies alone (the outside total of English species being no more than sixty-six). On the wings of these insects he wrote in a memorable passage, 'Nature writes as on a tablet the story of the modifications of species.' During the whole of his sojourn amid the Brazilian forests his speculations were approximating to the theory of natural selection, and upon the publication of the 'Origin of Species' (November 1859) he became a staunch and thoroughgoing adherent of the Darwinian hypothesis.
On 11 Feb. 1859 Bates left Ega for England, having spent eleven of the best years of his life within four degrees of the equator, among many discouragements, and to the detriment of his health, but to the permanent enrichment of our knowledge of one of the most interesting regions of the globe. During his stay in the Amazons he had learned German and Portuguese, had discovered over eight thousand species new to science, and by the sale of specimens had made a profit of about 800l. He sailed from Pará on 2 June 1859, and upon his arrival set to work at once upon his collections. His philosophic insight was first fully exhibited in his celebrated paper, read before the Linnean Society on 21 June 1861, 'Contri- butions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley. Lepidoptera : KeViconidæ' (Linnean Soc. Trans, vol. xxiii. 1862), described by Darwin as 'one of the most remarkable and admirable papers I ever read in my life.' It was this paper which first gave a due prominence before the scientific world to the phenomenon of mimicry, and with it a philosophic explanation which at once received Darwin's unconditional acceptance. 'I rejoice,' wrote the latter with characteristic sincerity, 'that I passed over the whole subject in the "Origin," for I should have made a precious mess of it ' (cf. Poulton, Colours of Aniynals, pp. 217 sq. ; Beddaed, Animal Coloration, passim ; Grant Allen on 'Mimicry,' Encyel. Brit. 9th ed.) Darwin strongly recommended Bates to publish a narrative of his travels, and with this object introduced him to the publisher, John Murray, who proved an invaluable friend. In January 1863 Murray issued Bates's 'Naturalist on the Amazons', which has been described as 'the best work of natural history travels published in England.' Apart from the personal charm of the narrative. Bates as a describer of the tropical forest is second only to Humboldt. His breadth of view saved him from the narrowness of specialism, and he was as far removed as possible from what Darwin called 'the mob of naturalists without souls.' The book was highly praised in the 'Revue des Deux Mondes' for August 1863, but the highest compliment it received was the remark of John Gould (whose greatest ambition had been to see the great river) to the author : 'Bates, I have read your book — I've seen the Amazons.' In April 1862, by the advice of numerous friends. Bates applied for a post in the zoological department at the British Museum, but the post was given to the poet Arthur William Edgar 0'Shaughnessy [q.v.], whose mind was a tabula rasa as far as zoological knowledge was concerned.

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Revisão Critica de Charles Darwin

CHARLES DARWIN

Author of "The Origin of Species," etc.

[From Natural History Review, vol. iii. 1863.]

IN April, 1848, the author of the present volume left England in company with Mr. A. R. Wallace--"who has since acquired wide fame in connection with the Darwinian theory of Natural Selection"--on a joint expedition up the river Amazons, for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of the vast wood-region traversed by that mighty river and its numerous tributaries. Mr. Wallace returned to England after four years' stay, and was, we believe, unlucky enough to lose the greater part of his collections by the shipwreck of the vessel in which he had transmitted them to London. Mr. Bates prolonged his residence in the Amazon valley seven years after Mr. Wallace's departure, and did not revisit his native country again until 1859. Mr. Bates was also more fortunate than his companion in bringing his gathered treasures home to England in safety. So great, indeed, was the mass of specimens accumulated by Mr. Bates during his eleven years' researches, that upon the working out of his collection, which has been accomplished (or is now in course of being accomplished) by different scientific naturalists in this country, it has been ascertained that representatives of no less than 14,712 species are amongst them, of which about 8000 were previously unknown to science. It may be remarked that by far the greater portion of these species, namely, about 14,000, belong to the class of Insects--to the study of which Mr. Bates principally devoted his attention--being, as is well known, himself recognised as no mean authority as regards this class of organic beings. In his present volume, however, Mr. Bates does not confine himself to his entomological discoveries, nor to any other branch of Natural History, but supplies a general outline of his adventures during his journeyings up and down the mighty river, and a variety of information concerning every object of interest, whether physical or political, that he met with by the way. Mr. Bates landed at Para in May, 1848. His first part is entirely taken up with an account of the Lower Amazons--that is, the river from its sources up to the city of Manaos or Barra do Rio Negro, where it is joined by the large northern confluent of that name-- and with a narrative of his residence at Para and his various excursions in the neighbourhood of that city. The large collection made by Mr. Bates of the animal productions of Para enabled him to arrive at the following conclusions regarding the relations of the Fauna of the south side of the Amazonian delta with those of other regions. "It is generally allowed that Guiana and Brazil, to the north and south of the Para district, form two distinct provinces, as regards their animal and vegetable inhabitants. By this it means that the two regions have a very large number of forms peculiar to themselves, and which are supposed not to have been derived from other quarters during modern geological times. Each may be considered as a centre of distribution in the latest process of dissemination of species over the surface of tropical America. Para lies midway between the two centres, each of which has a nucleus of elevated table-land, whilst the intermediate river- valley forms a wide extent of low-lying country. It is, therefore, interesting to ascertain from which the latter received its population, or whether it contains so large a number of endemic species as would warrant the conclusion that it is itself an independent province. To assist in deciding such questions as these, we must compare closely the species found in the district with those of the other contiguous regions, and endeavour to ascertain whether they are identical, or only slightly modified, or whether they are highly peculiar. "Von Martius when he visited this part of Brazil forty years ago, coming from the south, was much struck with the dissimilarity of the animal and vegetable productions to those of other parts of Brazil. In fact the Fauna of Para, and the lower part of the Amazons has no close relationship with that of Brazil proper; but it has a very great affinity with that of the coast region of Guiana, from Cayenne to Demerara. If we may judge from the results afforded by the study of certain families of insects, no peculiar Brazilian forms are found in the Para district; whilst more than one-half of the total number are essentially Guiana species, being found nowhere else but in Guiana and Amazonia. Many of them, however, are modified from the Guiana type, and about one-seventh seem to be restricted to Para. These endemic species are not highly peculiar, and they may yet be found over a great part of Northern Brazil when the country is better explored. They do not warrant us in concluding that the district forms an independent province, although they show that its Fauna is not wholly derivative, and that the land is probably not entirely a new formation. From all these facts, I think we must conclude that the Para district belongs to the Guiana province and that, if it is newer land than Guiana, it must have received the great bulk of its animal population from that region. I am informed by Dr. Sclater that similar results are derivable from the comparison of the birds of these countries." One of the most interesting excursions made by Mr. Bates from Para was the ascent of the river Tocantins--the mouth of which lies about 4-5 miles from the city of Para. This was twice attempted. On the second occasion--our author being in company with Mr. Wallace--the travellers penetrated as far as the rapids of Arroyos, about 130 miles from its mouth. This district is one of the chief collecting-grounds of the well-known Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa), which is here very plentiful, grove after grove of these splendid trees being visible, towering above their fellows, with the "woody fruits, large and round as cannon-balls, dotted over the branches." The Hyacinthine Macaw (Ara hyacinthina) is another natural wonder, first met with here. This splendid bird, which is occasionally brought alive to the Zoological Gardens of Europe, "only occurs in the interior of Brazil, from 16' S.L. to the southern border of the Amazon valley." Its enormous beak--which must strike even the most unobservant with wonder--appears to be adapted to enable it to feed on the nuts of the Mucuja Palm (Acrocomia lasiospatha). "These nuts, which are so hard as to be difficult to break with a heavy hammer, are crushed to a pulp by the powerful beak of this Macaw." Mr. Bates' later part is mainly devoted to his residence at Santarem, at the junction of the Rio Tapajos with the main stream, and to his account of Upper Amazon, or Solimoens--the Fauna of which is, as we shall presently see, in many respects very different from that of the lower part of the river. At Santarem--"the most important and most civilised settlement on the Amazon, between the Atlantic and Para "--Mr. Bates made his headquarters for three years and a half, during which time several excursions up the little-known Tapajos were effected. Some 70 miles up the stream, on its affluent, the Cupari, a new Fauna, for the most part very distinct from that of the lower part of the same stream, was entered upon. "At the same time a considerable proportion of the Cupari species were identical with those of Ega, on the Upper Amazon, a district eight times further removed than the village just mentioned." Mr. Bates was more successful here than on his excursion up the Tocantins, and obtained twenty new species of fishes, and many new and conspicuous insects, apparently peculiar to this part of the Amazonian valley. In a later chapter Mr. Bates commences his account of the Solimoens, or Upper Amazons, on the banks of which he passed four years and a half. The country is a "magnificent wilderness, where civilised man has, as yet, scarcely obtained a footing-the cultivated ground, from the Rio Negro to the Andes, amounting only to a few score acres." During the whole of this time Mr. Bates' headquarters were at Ega, on the Teffe, a confluent of the great river from the south, whence excursions were made sometimes for 300 or 400 miles into the interior. In the intervals Mr. Bates followed his pursuit as a collecting naturalist in the same "peaceful, regular way," as he might have done in a European village. Our author draws a most striking picture of the quiet, secluded life he led in this far-distant spot. The difficulty of getting news and the want of intellectual society were the great drawbacks--"the latter increasing until it became almost insupportable." "I was obliged at last," Mr. Bates naively remarks, "to come to the conclusion that the contemplation of Nature, alone is not sufficient to fill the human heart and mind." Mr. Bates must indeed have been driven to great straits as regards his mental food, when, as he tell us, he took to reading the Athenaeum three times over, "the first time devouring the more interesting articles--the second, the whole of the remainder--and the third, reading all the advertisements from beginning to end." Ega was, indeed, as Mr. Bates remarks, a fine field for a Natural History collector, the only previous scientific visitants to that region having been the German Naturalists, Spix and Martius, and the Count de Castelnau when he descended the Amazons from the Pacific. Mr. Bates' account of the monkeys of the genera Brachyuyus, Nyctipithecus and Midas met with in this region, and the whole of the very pregnant remarks which follow on the American forms of the Quadrumana, will be read with interest by every one, particularly by those who pay attention to the important subject of geographical distribution. We need hardly say that Mr. Bates, after the attention he has bestowed upon this question, is a zealous advocate of the hypothesis of the origin of species by derivation from a common stock. After giving an outline of the general distribution of Monkeys, he clearly argues that unless the "common origin at least of the species of a family be admitted, the problem of their distribution must remain an inexplicable mystery." Mr. Bates evidently thoroughly understands the nature of this interesting problem, and in another passage, in which the very singular distribution of the Butterflies of the genus Heliconius is enlarged upon, concludes with the following significant remarks upon this important subject: "In the controversy which is being waged amongst Naturalists since the publication of the Darwinian theory of the origin of species, it has been rightly said that no proof at present existed of the production of a physiological species, that is, a form which will not interbreed with the one from which it was derived, although given ample opportunities of doing so, and does not exhibit signs of reverting to its parent form when placed under the same conditions with it. Morphological species, that is, forms which differ to an amount that would justify their being considered good species, have been produced in plenty through selection by man out of variations arising under domestication or cultivation. The facts just given are therefore of some scientific importance, for they tend to show that a physiological species can be and is produced in nature out of the varieties of a pre-existing closely allied one. This is not an isolated case, for I observed in the course of my travels a number of similar instances. But in very few has it happened that the species which clearly appears to be the parent, co-exists with one that has been evidently derived from it. Generally the supposed parent also seems to have been modified, and then the demonstration is not so clear, for some of the links in the chain of variation are wanting. The process of origination of a species in nature as it takes place successively, must be ever, perhaps, beyond man's power to trace, on account of the great lapse of time it requires. But we can obtain a fair view of it by tracing a variable and far-spreading species over the wide area of its present distribution; and a long observation of such will lead to the conclusion that new species must in all cases have arisen out of variable and widely-disseminated forms. It sometimes happens, as in the present instance, that we find in one locality a species under a certain form which is constant to all the individuals concerned; in another exhibiting numerous varieties; and in a third presenting itself as a constant form quite distinct from the one we set out with. If we meet with any two of these modifications living side by side, and maintaining their distinctive characters under such circumstances, the proof of the natural origination of a species is complete; it could not be much more so were we able to watch the process step by step. It might be objected that the difference between our two species is but slight, and that by classing them as varieties nothing further would be proved by them. But the differences between them are such as obtain between allied species generally. Large genera are composed in great part of such species, and it is interesting to show the great and beautiful diversity within a large genus as brought about by the working of laws within our comprehension." But to return to the Zoological wonders of the Upper Amazon, birds, insects, and butterflies are all spoken of by Mr. Bates in his chapter on the natural features of the district, and it is evident that none of these classes of beings escaped the observation of his watchful intelligence. The account of the foraging ants of the genus Eciton is certainly marvellous, and would, even of itself, be sufficient to stamp the recorder of their habits as a man of no ordinary mark. The last chapter of Mr. Bates' work contains the account of his excursions beyond Ega. Fonteboa, Tunantins--a small semi-Indian settlement, 240 miles up the stream--and San Paulo de Olivenca, some miles higher up, were the principal places visited, and new acquisitions were gathered at each of these localities. In the fourth month of Mr. Bates' residence at the last-named place, a severe attack of ague led to the abandonment of the plans he had formed of proceeding to the Peruvian towns of Pebas and Moyobamba, and "so completing the examination of the Natural History of the Amazonian plains up to the foot of the Andes." This attack, which seemed to be the culmination of a gradual deterioration of health, caused by eleven years' hard work under the tropics, induced him to return to Ega, and finally to Para, where he embarked, on the 2nd June 1859, for England. Naturally enough, Mr. Bates tells us he was at first a little dismayed at leaving the equator, "where the well-balanced forces of Nature maintain a land-surface and a climate typical of mind, and order and beauty," to sail towards the "crepuscular skies" of the cold north. But he consoles us by adding the remark that "three years' renewed experience of England" have convinced him "how incomparably superior is civilised life to the spiritual sterility of half-savage existence, even if it were passed in the Garden of Eden."

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Conteúdo da Primeira Edição -  Henry Battes

CONTENTS OF VOL. I 
 
CHAPTER I
. 
PARÁ
Arrival— Aspect of the country— the Para Elver— Fu-st walk in the Suburbs of Para— Free Negroes— Birds, Lizards, and Insects 
of the Suburbs— Leaf-cutting Ant— Sketch of the climate, his-  tory, and present condition of Para 1 
 
CHAPTER II. 
 
PARÁ
The Swampy forests of Para — A Portuguese landed proprietor —  Country house at Nazareth— Life of a Naturalist under the equator 
— The drier virgin forests — Magoary — Eetired creeks — Abo-rigines 44
 
CHAPTER III. 
 
PARÁ
Religious holidays— Marmoset Monkeys — Serpents — Insects of the  forest —Eelations of the fauna of the Para District . . .86 
 
CHAPTER IV. 
 
THE TOCANTINS AND CAMETA. 
Preparations for the journey — The bay of Goajara — Grove of fan leaved palms— The lower Tocantins— Sketch of the river— Vista 
alegi-e — Baiao — Eapids— Boat journey to the Guariba falls — Native life on the Tocantins— Second journey to Cameta . . 112 
 
CHAPTER V. 
 
 CARIPI AND THE BAY OF MARAJÓ. 
"River Para and Bay of Marajó— Journey to Caripi — Negro observance of Christmas — A German Family — Bats — Ant-eaters — 
Humming-birds — Excursion to the Murucupi — Domestic Life of the Inhabitants — Hunting Excursion with Indians — Natural 
History of the Paca and Cutia — Insects , . . . .168 
 
CHAPTER VI. 
 
THE LOWER AMAZONS-PARA TO OBYDOS. 
 
Modes of travelling on the Amazons — Historical Sketch of the early explorations of the River — Preparations for Voyage— Life 
on board a large Trading- vessel — The narrow Channels joining the Para to the Amazons — First Sight of the great River — Gurupa — 
The Great Shoal — Flat-topped Mountains — Contraction of the River Yalley — Santarem — Obydos — Natural History of Obydos — 
Origin of Species by Segregation of Local Varieties . . .212 
 
CHAPTER VII. 
 
THE LOWER AMAZONS— OBYDOS TO MANAOS, OR  THE BARRA OF THE RIO NEGRO. 
Departure from Obydos — River banks and by-channels— Cacao planters — Daily life on board our vessel — Great Storm— Sand- 
island and its birds — Hill of Pareutins — Negro trader and  Manilas Indians — Villa Nova, its inhabitants, climate, forest, 
and animal productions — Cararaucu — A rustic festival — Lake of Cararaucu — Moti'ica flies — Serpa — Christmas holidays — River 
Madeira — A mameluco farmer — Mura Indians — Rio Negro — Description of Barra — Descent to Para — Yellow fever . . 266 
 
CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 
CHAPTER I. 
SANTAKEM. 
Situation of Santarem — Manners and customs of the inhabitants — Trade — Climate — Leprosy — Historical sketch — Grassy campos 
and woods — Excursions to Mapiri, Mahica, and Irura, with  sketches of their Natural History ; Palms, wild fruit-trees, 
Mining Wasps, Mason Wasps, Bees, Sloths, and Marmoset Monkeys — Natural History of Termites or White Ants . . 1 
 
CHAPTER II. 
VOYAGE UP THE TAPAJOS. 
Preparations for voyage — First day's sail — Mode of arranging money-matters and remittance of collections in the interior — 
Loss of boat — Altar do Chad — Excursion in forest — Valuable timber — Modes of obtaining fish — Difficulties with crew — Arrival 
at Aveyros — Excursions in the neighbourhood — White Cebus and habits and dispositions of Cebi Monkeys — Tame Parrot — 
Missionary settlement — Enter the Kiver Cupari — Adventure with Anaconda — Smoke-dried Monkey — Boa-constrictor — Village of 
Mundurucu Indians, and incursion of a wild tribe — Falls of  the Cupari — Hyacinthine Macaw — Re-emerge into the broad 
Tapajos — Descent of river to Santarem . . . . .71 
 
 
Adicionar legenda
 
CHAPTER III. 
 
THE UPPER AMAZONS— VOYAGE TO EGA. 
 
Departure from Barra — First day and night on the Upper Amaazons — Desolate appearance of river in the flood season — Cucama 
Indians — Mental condition of Indians — Squalls — Manatee — Forest — Floating pumice-stones from the Andes — Falling banks 
— Ega and its inhabitants — Daily life of a Naturalist at Ega — Customs, trade, &c. — The four seasons of the Upper Amazons . 153 
 
CHAPTER IV. 

EXCURSIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF EGA. 
The river Teffe — Rambles through groves on the beach — Excurion to the house of a Passe chieftain — Character and customs of 
the Passe* tribe — First excursion to the sand islands of the  Solimoens — Habits of great river-turtle — Second excursion — 
Turtle-fishing in the inland pools — Third excursion — Hunting-rambles with, natives in the forest — Return to Ega . . 225 

CHAPTER V. 
ANIMALS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF EGA. 
Scarlet-faced Monkeys — Parauacii Monkey — Owl-faced Night-apes — Marmosets — Jupurd, — Comparison of Monkeys of the New 
"World with those of the Old — Bats — Birds — Cuvier's Toucan — Curl-crested Toucan — Insects — Pendulous Cocoons — Foraging 
Ants— Blind Ants 305 
 
CHAPTER VI. 
EXCURSIONS BEYOND EGA. Steamboat travelling on the Amazons — Passengers — Tunantins — Caishana Indians — The Jutahi — Indian tribes on the Jutahi and the Junia — The Sapo — Maraud Indians — Fonte Boa — Journey to St. Paulo — Tucuna Indians — Illness— Descent to Para — Changes at Para — Departure for England 367